A sampling of recent judicial ethics advisory opinions

  • The Americans with Disabilities Act does not require a judge to allow nonlawyers to represent litigants with disabilities in court.  A judge may permit accommodations for litigants with disabilities that do not conflict with rules prohibiting the unauthorized practice of law, for example, allowing an individual to sit with a self-represented litigant, but may deny a request for an accommodation that would circumvent procedures essential to the nature of the court’s services, programs, or activities.  A court may encourage a litigant with a disability to seek assistance, but may not exclude them from court services, programs, or activities if they choose not to seek assistance. Arizona Opinion 2020-1. 
  • A judge is not required to recuse from a case after an unsolicited ex parte communication from a litigant if the judge halts the communication as soon as possible, promptly advises all parties, and can disregard it.  Illinois Opinion 2020-1.
  • When a party or attorney has advised the court that their preferred gender pronoun is “they,” a judge may not require them to use “he” or “she.”  New York Opinion 2021-9.
  • An appellate justice may not accept the services of a law firm employee who is an incoming associate to work in the justice’s chambers for 6 to 12 months.  California Expedited Opinion 2021-38.
  • On learning that a law firm has posted screen shots or videos of the court’s oral arguments on its website, a justice should request that the images be removed.  New York Opinion 2020-158.
  • • To celebrate birthdays and holidays, judges may exchange modest gifts with their courtroom staff but should treat all staff members equally and maintain proper decorum and should not give any gifts that might pressure staff to reciprocate, be offensive, demeaning, or otherwise inappropriate, or be perceived as harassment. California Expedited Opinion 2021-39.
  • After receiving any required administrative approvals, judges may collaborate with the Historical Society of the New York Courts on a project to provide historical context for existing art and memorials at the courthouse and install new thematic artworks created by artists from marginalized groups.  New York Opinion 2020-202.
  • A judge is required to report to the State Commission on Judicial Conduct a town justice who filed a letter in support of the town clerk’s pistol permit application.  New York Opinion 2020-181.
  • A judge may not write a letter to the attorney grievance commission attesting to a former employee’s character.  Maryland Opinion Request 2020-22
  • A judge may not allow a transition program for formerly incarcerated individuals to list the judge’s name with other supporters in a grant application.  New York Opinion 2020-144.
  • Subject to general limitations on speech and conduct, a judge may write an article for a legal publication outlining what the judge considers are significant flaws in the risk assessment instrument judges are required to use under New York’s Sex Offender Registration Act.  New York Opinion 2020-136.
  • A town justice may not serve on the town’s police reform collaborative.  New York Opinion 2020-183
  • A judge may not accept an award for domestic violence awareness month from a not-for-profit entity that provides legal advocacy services and other resources and support for domestic violence victims.  New York Opinion 2020-184
  • A judge may donate to a fund established to install a public monument honoring a federal judge and may also solicit contributions from co-equal judicial colleagues.  The judges’ names and titles may be listed with other contributors on a plaque erected with the statue.  New York Opinion 2020-132.
  • A judge who underwent surgery at a not-for-profit hospital may not share their story on a patient education live webinar on the hospital’s website and social media channels.  New York Opinion 2020-108.
  • A municipal judge may not serve on the board of directors of a non-profit corporation that contracts with the city to provide re-entry services to the court as an alternative to incarceration.  Ohio Opinion 2021-1.
  • A judge may serve on a bar association’s internal nominating committee that recommends individuals seeking board and officer seats.  New York Opinion 2020-168.
  • A town justice may not speak at a town board meeting about a proposed resolution opposing extension of the big game hunting season.  New York Opinion 2020-193.
  • A judge may obtain and license a patent.  New York Opinion 2020-102.
  • A judge may volunteer as a participant in a COVID-19 study conducted by a hospital and may accept the same modest per-visit compensation as other participants.  New York Opinion 2021-11,
  • A judge may not form a for-profit company that will provide instruction on diversity, equity, and inclusion topics.  New York Opinion 2020-155.
  • A judge who is leaving office may not authorize a prospective employer to advertise their anticipated post-judicial employment at the firm.  Florida Opinion 2020-26.
  • As often as the judge determines necessary based on the circumstances, a judge must ask her spouse for information on his business arrangements with local attorneys and determine if disqualification or disclosure is necessary.  New York Opinion 2020-126.
  • A judge need not object to his spouse hosting a political fund-raiser for a candidate at their marital home, but the invitations must not refer to the judge, and the judge must not appear or participate in the event.  New York Opinion 2020-157/2020-160.
  • A judicial candidate may pledge to comply with the rules about appointments and fees in fiduciary cases and to make decisions and appointments without regard to political affiliation, cronyism, or nepotism.  A judicial candidate may not pledge to strive to appoint women attorneys and attorneys of color to fiduciary positions but may promise to reach out to various associations to increase participation in the lists.  New York Opinion 2020-114.

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